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Old 02-28-2010, 04:17 PM   #1
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Default Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines, Dr. Ronald Schultz

Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines:
What We Know and Don't Know


Ronald D. Schultz, Professor and Chair
Department of Patho-biological Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison


It has been common practice since the development of canine vaccines in the late 1950's to administer them annually. The recommendation to vaccinate annually was based on the assumption that immunity would wane in some dogs, thus to ensure immunity in the population, all dogs required revaccination since it was not practical to test each animal for antibody. Little or no research has been done to demonstrate that the practice of annual revaccination has any scientific value in providing greater immunity than would be present if an animal was never revaccinated or was revaccinated at intervals longer than one year.

In 1978 we recommended an ideal vaccination program would be one in which dogs and cats would be revaccinated at one year of age and then every third year thereafter (1). That recommendation was based on a general knowledge of vaccinal immunity, especially the importance of immunologic memory and on duration of protection after natural sub clinical or clinical infections as well as on limited studies we had performed with certain canine and feline vaccines. Since the mid 1970's we have done a variety of studies with various canine vaccines to demonstrate their duration of immunity. From our studies it is apparent, at least to me, that the duration of immunity for the four most important canine vaccines (core vaccines) that the duration of immunity is considerably longer than one year. Furthermore, we have found that annual revaccination, with the vaccines that provide long term immunity, provides no demonstrable benefit and may increase the risk for adverse reactions. We have assessed duration of protective immunity primarily by two procedures; the first is held to be the "gold standard and that is to challenge the vaccinated animal with the virulent organism, the second method is to measure antibody and compare the antibody titer to that which is known to prevent infection (e.g. provide sterile immunity). The studies we report here include challenge studies as well as studies that determine antibody titers. A summary of our results show the following (Table 1).



Table 1: Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine Vaccines

CORE VACCINES


Table 1: Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine Vaccines

Vaccine / Minimum Duration of Immunity / Methods Used to Determine Immunity

Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

Rockborn Strain 7 years/15 years challenge/serology
Onderstepoort Strain 5 years/9 years challenge/serology


Canine Adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) 7 years/9 years challenge-CAV-1/serology
Canine Parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) 7 years challenge/serology


Canine Rabies 3 years/7 years challenge/serology


NON-CORE VACCINES

Canine parainfluenza
3 yrs. serology
Bordetella bronchiseptica 9 months challenge
Leptospira interrogans ser. canicola ?
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiac ?
Borrelia burgdorfen
1 yr. challenge
Giardia ?
Canine Coronavirus
Lifetime (whether vaccinated or not vaccinated) Challenge / serology

The minimum duration of immunity data does not imply that all vaccinated dogs will be immune for the period of time listed, nor does it suggest that immunity may not last longer (e.g. the life of the dog). The percentage of vaccinated animals protected from clinical disease after challenge with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in the present study was greater than 95%.

Although there is much more that we need to know about duration of immunity to canine vaccines the information we have at present provides adequate justification for the vaccination recommendations that I and others have made and continue to make regarding frequency of vaccination (2)

1. Schultz, RD. and F.W. Scott. Canine & Feline Immunization. In: Symposium on Practical Immunology. R.D. Schultz, Ed., Vet Clinics of N. Am., Nov. 1978, W.B. Saunders Co.

2. Schultz, R.D. Current and Future Canine and feline vaccination programs. Vet Med 3: No. 3, 233-254, 1998.
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Old 02-28-2010, 11:56 PM   #2
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When I was a young girl the only thing dogs were vaccinated against was distemper & they on had the puppy shots & that was it for the rest of their lives. Always made me wonder why they had to be re vaccinated against it yearly along with the other things available.
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Old 02-28-2010, 11:59 PM   #3
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Recently my vet has said that they recommend that all vaccinations apart from parvo should be given every 3 years. Parvo should be given yearly.
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Old 03-01-2010, 12:27 AM   #4
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In some areas they say bordatella lasts a year...

I went to three year vax over a decade ago ... now I am thinking puppy, booster and then only rabies per local law

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Old 03-01-2010, 07:15 AM   #5
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The vaccine that Nipper has is a vaccine that has several different vaccines in it.
Nipper has been done again at 12 monthly intervals. What I want to know is do multi vaccines have to be given annualy to still be effective?
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Old 03-02-2010, 07:49 AM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bigboy View Post
The vaccine that Nipper has is a vaccine that has several different vaccines in it.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Bigboy View Post
Nipper has been done again at 12 monthly intervals. What I want to know is do multi vaccines have to be given annualy to still be effective?
No Bigboy, they do not. Those vaccines contain 3 of the 4 core canine vaccines that the American Animal Hospital Association recommends that all dogs have: rabies, distemper, hepatitis, and parvo.

The AAHA Guidelines http://www.leerburg.com/special_report.htm state on Page 18 that: “We now know that booster injections are of no value in dogs already immune, and immunity from distemper infection and vaccination lasts for a minimum of 7 years based on challenge studies and up to 15 years (a lifetime) based on antibody titer.”They further state that hepatitis and parvovirus vaccines have been proven to protect for a minimum of 7 years by challenge and up to 9 and 10 years based on antibody count.

Furthermore, combining vaccinations not only increases the risk of adverse reactions, it also increases the risk that the vaccine components will interfere with each other and neutralize or negate the immunological response.
Combination Vaccines, Multiple Shots--on Page 16 of the 2003 AAHA Guidelines under Immunological Factors Determining Vaccine Safety, it states that: "Although increasing the number of components in a vaccine may be more convenient for the practitioner or owner, the likelihood for adverse effects may increase. Also, interference can occur among the components. Care must be taken not to administer a product containing too many vaccines simultaneously if adverse events are to be avoided and optimal immune responses are sought. "

Except for the rabies vaccine, you'll be surprised to learn that the USDA does not regulate other veterinary vaccines. Manufacturers can label the vaccines to be given every week, month, etc... Here is some very revealing information from Colorado State regarding the pharmaceutical companies' recommendations for annual vaccines. The following quote is from the Small Animal Vaccination Protocols of the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and is accessible at: http://www.geocities.com/kremersark/CSAP.html The USDA requires challenge data two weeks after last vaccination for licensure for all vaccines (except rabies). The USDA does not require titers or challenge data at one year for any vaccine except for rabies vaccines. Manufacturers yearly vaccine recommendations are arbitrary for all but rabies vaccines.

The following quotes are from the same protocols cited above, posted on the Calm Animal Care Veterinary Clinic website at: http://www.calmanimalcare.com/vaccine.htm

Our adoption of this routine vaccination program is based on the lack of scientific evidence to support the current practice of annual vaccination and increasing documentation showing that overvaccinating has been associated with harmful side effects. ........With boosters (except for rabies vaccine), the annual revaccination recommendation on the vaccine label is just that -- a recommendation without the backing of long term duration of immunity studies, and is not a legal requirement. Rabies vaccine is the only commonly used vaccine that requires that duration of immunity studies be carried out before licensure in the United States. Even with rabies vaccines, the label may be misleading in that a three year duration of immunity product may also be labeled and sold as a one year duration of immunity product.

The American Veterinary Medical Association's 2007 Veterinary Biologics Guiding Principles www.avma.org/products/scientific/biologics.pdfstates that: The one-year revaccination recommendation found on many vaccine labels is often based on historical precedent and was allowed by USDA regulation since it was based on the best scientific knowledge available at that time, which did not necessarily include product specific data. Even in those cases where scientific data were submitted to qualify a revaccination label claim, the data generally targeted a minimum duration of immunity and did not necessarily resolve the question regarding average or maximum duration of immunity....... clinical need (relevancy) or usefulness (applicability) of a product may not be completely assured by the licensing process.

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